What Is So Great About Alexander? Would Have Been A Worst War Criminal, Looter, Rapist, Betrayer, Enslaver, Persecutor, and Mass Annihilator by the Present Standard - Causing Endless Diaspora and Slavery in The Peaceful Ancient Free World! 

 

Deepak Sarkar, www.kolki.com

{Abstract: Many times in victorious history we find mentions of ‘Great Wars’ deifying the war criminals as “GREAT”!  Alexander certainly could be Great to the Macedonian Noble Warmongers (Elites), Mine Owners (Bankers) and their subsequent worldwide offspring who had been sharing and enjoying the fruits of the looted Gold, Silver as well as slaves from the defeated/occupied lands including Tyre (Syria), Persia, Canaan (Palestine), Babylon, Egypt, Bactria and India but to the sufferers he was nothing but the worst war criminal, looter, slave-trader and murderer in history who also murdered his own best friend as well as most trusted General and his son on mere suspicion. Zoroastrian priests demonized Alexander describing him as one of the worst sinners in history.}     

 

[Background History: Macedonians are believed to have as ancestors Dorian Greeks, who had overrun other people in the area. Macedonians worshiped Greek gods and spoke a dialect of Greek. But it was a dialect that was difficult for the Greeks south of them to understand. Greeks to the south of the Macedonians saw the Macedonians as uncouth barbarians. When Greece was a thriving participatory democracy some Greek aristocrats from of the Peloponnesian city of Argos had immigrated to Macedonia in the 600s. Alexander’s father Philip was a product of those aristocrats who declared him King of Macedonia killing his infant nephew as would be king under his care.

 

Alexander was born1 the sixth of Hecatombaeon*, the month Macedonians call Lous, the same day that the temple of Artemis of Ephesus was burned down while its mistress was absent, assisting at the birth of Alexander. And all the Eastern soothsayers who happened to be at Ephesus at that time, looking upon the ruin of the temple feared it be the forerunner of some other calamity, ran around the town, beating their faces, and crying that this day had brought forth something that would prove fatal and destructive to all Asia. They didn’t know eventually it would be fatal and destructive to all over the world.

 

This article will show that Alexander might have been a great hero to many who have been historically enjoying the fruits of the aggressive Macedonian wars and deadly expansions around ancient world but any humane analysis of his actions would prove him as A Worst War Criminal, Rapist, Looter, Betrayer, Enslaver, Persecutor, and Mass Annihilator by the Present Standard - Causing Endless sufferings and Diaspora in The Peaceful Ancient World!]

 

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Summary of Alexander’s Atrocities:

He scattered the Thebans and sold many into slavery

Massacred Darius' poorly led army

Macedonians cut the disorderly ranks of the Persian infantry to pieces and sent two thousand of

  the surviving mercenaries as slaves to work for the Macedonia's mines

During seven-month siege of Tyre the many who did not surrender were put to death, and the

  women and children were sold into slavery.

Looted Tyre Treasury - 50 Tons of Gold, equivalent silver as well as Jewellery from women

Gaza's defenders fought to the last man. Alexander sold its women and children into slavery

Expelled Samaria's inhabitants, and in their place he invited Macedonians to populate the city

Massacred Darius' poorly led army second time

Macedonian General Antipater's army crushed the armies of Sparta and its allies

Alexander entered Babylon in triumph and his soldiers spent their pay on Babylon's women

Alexander acquired Persian City Susa’s great treasury and reward his troops generously

In Susa, Alexander sacrificed bulls to the gods in accordance with Macedonian custom

Alexander seized a wondrous amount of money from the Persian treasury in the capital Persepolis,

  then turned the city over to his troops who stormed through its streets, slaughtered men,

  plundered their property and stripped women of their jewellery; then Alexander and his army

  burned Persepolis' great palace of Xerxes.

Alexander inflicted heavy casualties on Bactrian gaining control of the route farther east and

  forcing local peoples to accept his rule

Cut off Persian Leader Bessus' nose and ears before execution

Alexander killed his best friend and saviour unarmed Cleitus running a pike through him

After killing 2180 soldiers of a kingdom near Indus River, Alexander and the others began a

  murderous march of fifteen hundred miles

Murdered Parmenion (c.400-330): most trusted general of the Macedonian king Philip II, loyal

  supporter of Alexander the Conqueror, on a false charge of treason.

Upon returning to Persepolis he had most of the errant Governors executed

Zoroastrian priests demonized Alexander describing him as one of the worst sinners in history

 

About Philip, Father of Alexander

[In 359 BCE, the Macedonian king, Perdiccas III, was killed fighting an invasion by the Illyrians. His infant son succeeded him, and Perdiccas' twenty-two year-old brother, Philip, was made the infant's regent. Philip pushed aside his infant nephew.  Perhaps he had the child murdered.  Then he made himself king, taking the title Philip II. Philip claimed to be descended from Greeks of the Peloponnesian city of Argos, where Homer's king Agamemnon was said to have ruled - a city from which, it was also said, some Greek aristocrats in the 600s had emigrated to Macedonia.

 

The nobility in Macedonia had been a source of division, and Philip mitigated this by making nobles of men who supported him. In 358, with his strengthened army, he invaded Paeonia. Then he led his army against the Illyrians, killing seven thousand in one battle and reversing the defeat of the year before. That year he transferred Macedonians to his kingdom's northern plain, splitting hostile groups and defining the frontier against the Illyrians. The following year he helped stabilize his western frontier by marrying Olympias, the daughter of king Neoptolemus of Epirus. These successes gave Philip more land with which to support horses, more men for his armies and more revenues.  He had more land to give to nobles as rewards for their loyalty, and the nobles, impressed by Philip's military successes, were now firmer in their recognition of his authority.

 

In 342, Philip installed his brother on the throne of Epirus. He left his sixteen year-old son, Alexander, in charge of Macedonia and led his army eastward into Thrace, reaching the city of Perinthus in 340. Philip held autocratic authority over his league of Greek cities. He created a federal constitution and a council of representatives for his league, and he made the city of Corinth the meeting place where these representatives would settle issues that arose among them. The league's politics were to be conservative, bringing an end to the trend toward reform and democracy that had begun with Solon more than two hundred years before. Philip's league declared war and commissioned Philip to lead their armies against Persia.

 

Philip had divorced Alexander's mother, Olympias, and had married a younger woman. Olympias and Philip attended the marriage celebration of their daughter, and there one of Philip's former close companions, who now had a bitter grudge against him, leaped upon him and murdered him. Philip's generals supported Alexander as Philip's successor, and Alexander restored his mother as queen of Macedonia.]

Alexander the Conquer

Alexander led an army to Thebes, and in street fighting he overpowered the Thebans. He scattered the Thebans and sold many into slavery.

Alexander had inherited an efficient military machine, and he had learned lessons in good military strategy and diplomacy. In 334, Alexander started his army eastward toward Asia Minor. It was an army of nearly forty thousand, including secretaries, scientists and philosophers. Alexander's opponent was the forty-six year-old Darius III, a refined and intelligent man. Darius underestimated Alexander's strength, but he sent against him a force three times as large. The disorderly ranks of the Persian infantry became easy targets for the long spears and solid ranks of the Macedonians, and the Macedonians cut them to pieces. Darius' Greek mercenaries remained in formation and refused to surrender. Alexander's forces charged, and only around two thousand of the mercenaries survived, to be sent as slaves to work Macedonia's mines.

Alexander and his army marched into the middle of Asia Minor in pursuit of Darius, leaving behind the pacification needed for expanded conquest. In November, at Issus, on the Mediterranean coast just north of Syria, he met and defeated Darius' army again. Darius fled eastward through Mesopotamia, leaving behind his family, his harem and his treasury. And, with this victory, Alexander now considered himself king of Asia.

From Issus, Alexander moved southward through Syria, taking one Mediterranean seaport after another. In January 332, he and his army came upon the Phoenician city of Tyre, a naval base and home for many crewmen in Persia's navy, a city of fanatical fighters and a city that was a bitter enemy of surrounding city-states. Alexander began a seven-month siege of Tyre, and against Tyre he used catapults, rams and finally swords. Then he resorted to tradition: the many who did not surrender were put to death, and the women and children of Tyre were sold into slavery.

Alexander set his next goal as Egypt. He and his navy confronted the well fortified Phoenician city of Gaza, which, for Alexander was the gateway to Egypt. At Gaza, as at Tyre, the fighting was bitter. It lasted two months. Gaza's defenders fought to the last man. Alexander sold its women and children into slavery, and he repopulated the city by allowing the settlement there of people from the surrounding area.

Egyptians welcomed him as a liberator. They had little choice, for they no longer had the cohesion of an army that could resist him. And in Memphis, Alexander made sacrifices to Egypt's gods, including the bull god Apis.

Early in the year 331, Alexander sailed down the Nile, and he found a place he thought perfect for a city. There he founded Alexandria, soon to be Egypt's new capital - a city that would be populated by people from neighbouring villages and towns and by Macedonian, Greek and Balkan veterans from Alexander's army. Like a Macedonian city, Alexandria's inhabitants were to be subject to royal edicts but otherwise self-governing, with an assembly and a city council.

At Siwah, Alexander was welcomed by the local high priest as a great conqueror and as the son of Amon-Ra. Alexander welcomed this proclamation of his divinity. It was Macedonian and Greek tradition that a hero might be the son of a god and yet human.

In early 331, Alexander returned to his pursuit of Darius. Along the way, during the early summer, Alexander conducted a campaign against a rebellion in Samaria. There a group of Jews had captured and burned alive their governor. Samarians surrendered those responsible for the killing, and Alexander had the murderers executed on the spot. Then, as a further lesson against such rebellions, he expelled Samaria's inhabitants, and in their place he invited Macedonians to populate the city.

Moving eastward across Mesopotamia, Alexander came again to the Royal Road, and he turned south toward Susa. On October 1, Darius and his army of a million men arrived on a wide plain along the Royal Road, by a town called Gaugamela, and the two armies clashed. And Darius' poorly led army was massacred.

Alexander marched southward unimpeded, leaving the Royal Road and traveling along the Tigris River, past great fertile fields of barley and millet, past rows of date palms, man made canals and huge estates, to Babylon. The Persian governor of Babylon surrendered the city to him, and with his army Alexander entered the city in triumph. For Alexander's soldiers it was time for another rest, and they spent their pay on Babylon's women.

Sparta still resented Macedonia's occupation of the Peloponnese peninsula, and Sparta's king, Agis II, was encouraged by a large force leaving Macedonia to join Alexander, and Agis II was encouraged by an uprising against Macedonian rule in Thrace. Alexander's general in charge of defending the home front, Antipater, sent an army against the uprising. In the year 331, Antipater's army crushed the armies of Sparta and its allies - indicating again that Sparta's days as a great military power had ended.

Alexander pushed farther east - leaving the former governor of Babylon in charge of Babylon's civil affairs and a military force in Babylon under Macedonian charge. In twenty days he and his army traveled two hundred miles and arrived at Susa, the administrative center of the Persian Empire. Susa surrendered to Alexander before he entered the city. With this Alexander acquired the city's great treasury, which allowed him to reward his troops generously - his troops not having been allowed the usual form of payment to soldiers: pillage and loot. In Susa, Alexander sacrificed bulls to the gods in accordance with Macedonian custom.

In December, 331, Alexander left the Persian governor in charge in Susa, a Macedonian in charge of local troops, and with a refreshed army of about sixty-thousand, he fought his way southeastward through mountainous terrain. Then he swept through an open plain of woods, canals and estates, toward Persia's capital city, Persepolis. Alexander and his army of sixty thousand entered Persepolis and took control of its palace. They saw themselves in the heart of Persia. Alexander seized a wondrous amount of money from the Persian treasury. Then he resorted to the tradition of vengeance. Those in Persepolis were to pay for the misdeeds he believed the Persians had committed some hundred and fifty years before, when Xerxes had invaded Greece. Alexander turned the city over to his troops, who stormed through its streets, slaughtered men, plundered their property and stripped women of their jewellery. Alexander and his troops spent the remainder of the winter at Persepolis, and after a night of drinking, Alexander and his army burned Persepolis' great palace of Xerxes.

Alexander and his troops then pushed north along a mountainous course toward the Caspian Sea, to Darius' summer palace, where, according to reports, Darius and Persian troops were encamped. But before Alexander and his men could reach Darius, the leader of Darius' Bactrian cavalry, Bessus, and some accomplices, killed Darius. Bessus moved eastward with his troops and proclaimed himself Darius' successor. In pursuit, Alexander pushed eastward into Bactria. With reinforcements that arrived from Greece and Macedonia, Alexander fought local rulers and independent tribes whom the Persians had only barely managed to dominate. Alexander inflicted heavy casualties on them, gaining control of the route farther east and forcing local peoples to accept his rule.

Alexander marched into the Hindu Kush mountains, and, in these mountains, local people showed Alexander the rock where the mythical Prometheus was said to have been chained after he gave the gift of fire to humanity. Alexander, together with local rulers, managed to capture Bessus, who was brought naked in bonds and a wooden collar to stand before Alexander at the town of Bactra. And in keeping with Persian tradition, Bessus' nose and ears were cut off. Then he was sent to be tried by a Persian court, which had him executed.

In the vast area of Bactria, Alexander founded more towns, and he married a local chieftain's daughter, Roxana, apparently more for good relations with a local ruler than for love. As king of the East he began borrowing from the pomp of the Persian throne, and those who came to see him had to prostrate themselves before him in recognition of his divinity. Alexander's troops found it embarrassing and considered it a part of the slavishness and inferiority of Eastern people.

Alexander took more Persians into his ranks, including Darius' brother as one of his companion soldiers. One of Alexander's most trusted commanders, Cleitus, who had saved his life at Granicus, was offended by Macedonians having to petition Persians for an audience with their own king, and he objected to positions of command passing to Persians. While Alexander and his companions were having one of their wine parties, Alexander and Cleitus argued. Alexander, thinking that Cleitus was attacking, ran him through with a pike and killed him though unarmed.

After two years in Bactria, the king of an area by the Indus River - which had been a part of the Persian Empire - declared himself an ally of Alexander and requested Alexander's help against a rival kingdom. In the summer of 327, Alexander and his army started a 400-mile journey to India, arriving there in the spring of 326. He attacked the enemy's flank, compelling the enemy to rearrange his forces, and he took advantage of the enemy's confusion and imbalance. Alexander lost 990 men. The other side lost 2,180 and the battle.

Alexander hoped to advance to the Ganges River and make it his eastern border, but after a march of a hundred miles his troops refused to go farther east. Unable to persuade them to continue they journeyed south along the Hydaspes to the Indus River and down the Indus to the Arabian Sea. Some of Alexander's entourage boarded ships, and Alexander and the others began a murderous march of fifteen hundred miles through mountainous and dry terrain to Persepolis, then another three hundred miles to Susa - a journey that began in September, 325, aand ended in the spring of 324.

When Alexander returned he listened to charges against the errant governors, and he had most of them executed. Then he continued his policy of integrating his forces with local people. He encouraged his officers to take local women as wives. He set an example by taking two more wives for himself. And one of them, Stateira, was a daughter of Darius, which added legitimacy to Alexander's claim of kingship over the Persians.

Some ten thousand of Alexander's soldiers are said to have married local women. These soldiers received generous dowries, were demobilized and sent home. Their wives and children stayed in the East, where the children were to be maintained and educated in Greek ways, at state expense, and to be handed over to their fathers when they reached adulthood.

With new troops that arrived from Macedonia, Alexander created an integrated force, with Macedonians in the front rank carrying pikes, and Persians in rows behind them with swords and javelins. It was a force with greater mobility than before - and a creation that was to be adopted by the Roman Republic.

In 323, Alexander returned to Babylon, which he planned to make the capital of his great new empire. He hoped to create a new loyalty across the lands he had conquered. He planned to colonize the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf. And he planned to have Arabia circumnavigated and explored. He looked for his empire to be strengthened by a common culture, Hellenism, including the Greek language. His Persian cadets were to have instruction in Greek literature, and his other subjects in the East were to be encouraged to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.

Alexander was laying plans to extend his conquests to Sicily and Italy - to unite more of the world under his rule, but a fortuity intervened. In 323 BCE, at the age of thirty-two, Alexander died - possibly from malaria. Eventually Caesar would fulfil his dream making roman Empire Greco. Subsequently Papal wars and Crusades would colonize most part of what we now know as Europe, Columbus would colonize America and Cecil Rhodes would formulate his methodology for colonization and re-annexation around the world to sustain Oligarchy against Democracy!

 

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Zoroastrian priests demonized Alexander. They were jealous of foreign creeds and, reeling from the damage that Alexander had done to the prestige of their religion, they began a legend that described him as one of the worst sinners in history, as having slain many Persian teachers and lawyers and as having quenched many sacred fires. But in Ethiopia Christians would describe his father, Philip, as a Christian martyr, and they would describe Alexander as an ascetic saint. That will tell the world where Christianity came from long before Yahshua of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem. 

 

Conclusion: Thus Dorian Greeks spread from Greece to Macedonia, to Asia Minor, to Syria, to Gaza, to Egypt, to Babylon, to Persia, to Bactria and India holding monarchical positions and breeding freely among local population keeping memories of Alexander alive as divine ‘Son of God’ and creating deified Myths.   Now imagine what Zionist evangelists think of second coming of the Christ (messiah), another violent Son of God (Not loving Yahshua/Jesus) resembling Cecil Rhodes, Hitler or any combination of George W. Bush Sr./Jr., Tony Blair, John Howard, Obama, David Cameron, King Harper – to colonize the entire world in the guise of ‘New World Order’ – since the time of Phillip II, father of Alexander! Ironically, another Phillip (Greek) is the Vicar of Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (UK) sustaining Oligarchy even in 21st Century supposedly civilized democratic world! Recently UK’s Prince William and Kate Middleton named their new born ‘George Alexander Louis’ to keep the momentum of Hellenistic deception and wars against natives and universal welfare!  

Reference:

  1. Macrohistory and World Report, http://fsmitha.com/h1/ch11.htm

2.    http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander_t32.html#6

Notes:

*The first month of the year, theoretically starting on the first new moon after the summer's solstice. This could mean that Alexander was born on 20 July 356. Unfortunately, the astronomical, religious and civil calendars did not coincide in the fourth century; as a consequence, it is impossible to give the date of Alexander's birth.