Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
Nomadic Aryans invaded India ca. 1500 BC destroying the Indus valley
civilization and exterminating the Indus inhabitants. Thus ended the most brilliant
civilization of the ancient world. Subsequent to this invasion, India was plunged into 2000 years of the Vedic Dark Ages. When
cities were built again, it was under Scytho-Greek influence. The ziggurat of
the Indus disappeared forever.
- Ash layers indicate
widespread burning down of Indus cities by the
- Fractured skulls and
mutilated skeletons display axe and sword marks due to widespread massacre
of the Indus inhabitants by Aryan invaders.
- Caste System of Apartheid similar
to US South arose when white Caucasoid Aryans crushed the Semitic (`Pani'
or Phoenician) & black Dravidian inhabitants. Shivaism is still the
Dravidian religion (Tamil"civa", red,
angry), while Vaishnavism is the Indo-Aryan religion.
- Discontinuity marks the
Aryan invasion in all respects. Pottery, architecture, Aryan weapons
(incl. the horse & chariot) & Aryan settlements occur towards the
end of the civilization atop the destroyed cities with primitive fire
altars and the new painted grey ware (PGW)
- Flooding is indicated by the
silt deposits and was caused by the deliberate destruction of the indus dam and irrigation system by the Aryans.
- Northern Dravidians (eg. the
Brahui, Bhil and Gonds occupy isolated tracts of North and Central India
showing that the Dravidians were once spread over all of India.
- Sanskrit Literature clearly
records the Aryan invasion. Indra, chief of the Aryan gods, is repeatedly
referred to as "destroyer of cities" and exterminator of dasyus.
In Tamil literature 1500 BC is the date of the mythical destruction of
Tamil civilisation; this coincides with the Aryan invasion. In addition
Sanskrit contains many loanwords of Dravidian origin. Shiva is one example
Some sounds are also of Dravidian
- Astronomical Science used by
the Vedic ritualists was taken from the Semito-Dravidian Indus valley
people as these were compiled during the Indus
Valley and are not referred to
in the Avesta or Rig Veda.
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Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
Around 1500 BC, the Indus civilization
came, after 2000 years of prosperity, to a comparatively abrupt end. Conclusive
evidence shows that the reason for this decline, in fact the sole reason for
it, was an invasion by highly barbaric Aryans. They invaded, destroying the Indus cities
and exterminating the native peoples.
1. Archaeological Evidence
1.1 Thick Ash
Thick ash layers occur in the upper strata of many Indus cities.
At Nal the last phase of the Zhob-ware was burnt down so much so that the mound
is known as the Sohr Damb, or the Red Mound, from the reddening due to fire. At
Dabar Kot the upper 6 feet of the tell show 4 thick ash layers that indicate
repeated destruction by conflagration and the RG V encrusted ware is associated
with the last settlements of Harappa [ Piggott 215 ].
At the Rana Ghundai mound everywhere overlying the foundation level of the RG
III c phase there are pockets of ash. Above the RG III c phase the pottery is
markedly different from the preceding type, the RG IV phase pottery being painted
with coarse bands. RG IV was again destroyed by fire, and the RG V phase is
marked by another change in pottery. The RG V pottery is unpainted and contains
patterns in relief [ Piggott p. 214 ].
At Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Chanhu-daro, skeletons/fragments of skeletons indicate
violent massacres in the final stages of the cities' history. Huddled skeletons
of persons murdered in the streets indicate that the mass dyings were not due
to poisonings etc. but were violent.
-- [ Piggott p. 145 ]
Copper axe-adzes are
intrusive ar Harappan sites ( Harappa, Shahi-tump and Chanhu-daro ) but are
similar to those found at North Persian sites ( Hissar III, Shah Tepe, Turang
Tepe ) and Akkadian sites ( Assur, Sialk B cemetary : here the specimens are
probably as late as the 9th century BC ).
-- [ Piggott p.228 ]
Swords 1.5 foot long and strengthened at the mid-rib are non-Harappan and are
found only in the later strata of the cities. These swords at Mohenjo-daro have
a tang and rivet to hold the handle exactly as found in Palestine, where such
implements are associated with the Hyksos 1800-1500 BC
-- [ Piggott p. 229 ]
Copper harpoons found in the indus Valley are similar to those found in Europe
and elsewhere in Asia.
-- [ Piggott p. 237 ]
1.4 Flooding by Aryan Destruction of Indus Dams
of flooding were discovered in the Indus cities, mainly in the form
of silt deposits. It was thus considered that this flooding explantaion could
explain the fall of the Indus cities and was considered
as the most viable alternative to the idea of an Aryan invasio. It was
subsequently discovered, however, that flooding had been pointed out as a
consequence several decades before the actual discovery of flooding. It is now
accepted that flooding was caused by the Aryans' destruciton of the Indus dam and irrigation system,
and was merely another aspect of the genocide.
He smote Vrtra who encompassed the waters [ RgV VI.20.2 ]
+ He smote Vrtra who enclosed the waters, like a tree with the bolt [ RgV
+ He is referred to as `conquering the waters' ( apsujit ), which is his prime
+ Indra let loose the streams after slaying Vrtra [ RgV IV.19.8 ]
+ He cleaves the mountian, making the streams flow [ RgV I.57.6; X.89.7 ], even
with the sound of his bolt [ RgV VI.27.1]
-- [ RgV I.57.6; II.14.2; IV.19.8; VI.20..2; VI.27.1; X.89.7 ] [ ST 368 ]
Sanskrit, `vrtra' is an `obstacle', and denotes a barrage or blockage [ ISISH 70-71]. It is thus a word for `dam'. Dams now called
Gebr-band are found on many water-courses of the western parts of the Indus region. Aryans shattered
the dam system of the Indus, leading to silt deposits in Mohenjo-daro [ S
& T 369].
When he [Indra] laid open the great mountain, he let loose the torrents and
slew the Danava, he set free the pent up springs, the udder of the mountain. [ RgV V.32.1-2 ]
+ He slew the Danava, shattered the great mountian, broke open the well, set
free the pent up waters. [ RgV I.57.6; V.33.1 ]
+ He releases the streams which are like impisoned cows [ RgV
+ He won the cows and soma and made the 7 rivers flow. [ RgV
I.32.12; II.12.12 ]
+ He releases the imprisoned waters [ RgV I.57.6;
+ He dug out channels for the streams with his bolt [ RgV II.15.3 ], let the
flood of waterrs flow into the sea. [ RgV II.19.3 ]
+ He caused the waters pent up by Vrtra to flow [ RgV
III.26.6; IV.17.1 ]
-- [ MacDonnell ] [S & T 368-9 quotg Macdonell ]
Another verse explicitly
metnions him as a destroyer of dams:
= " he removed artificial barriers"
-- [ RgV 2.15.8 ]
rodhas = "dam" elsewhere in the Rig Veda and in later Sanskrit
[ S & T 369 ]. The above evidence, taken directly
from the Rig Veda and not from any secondary source, is sufficient to implacate
the Aryans as the destroyers of the dam systems of the ancient Indus.
1.5 Aryan Settlements
settlements occur atop the destroyed cities towards the end of the civlization.
THey are primitive brick structures made of material taken from the ruins of
the preceding towns.
1.3 Aryan Weaponry
Aryan weaponry, including the
horse and chariot occur towards the end of the Indus cities'
2.1 Northern Dravidians
Several Dravidian tribes still
inhabit isolated parts of northern India. The Brahui inhabit parts of Baluchistan
and stil speak a Dravidian language. The Bhils inhabit parts of southern
Rajastan. The black Gonds inhabit parts of central India about the Vindhyans.
2.2 The Black Sudroids
; Dravidians and African Race
Aryans and Dravidians today still retain by and large, the original features.
The Aryans have fair-pale skin, leptorrhine (thin) noses and straight hair. The
Dravidians have broad noses, curly-wavy hair and dark-black skin. They are
related to the Africans [ Winters* ]. [ Risley ].
Indo-Aryans belong to the Caucasoid or white race and are very similar to
Latins. The Indo-Aryan languages belong to the Indo-European family of
languages. Racially the Indo-Aryans posess white to fair skin, thin noses and
lips and straight hair.
References abound to an Aryan
invasion in Sanskrit literature.
The ancient singer praises the god
who "destroyed the Dasyans and protected the Aryan colour." [ Rg.V. III.34.9 ] [ Ann. 114 ] and
"the thunderer who bestowed on his white friends the fields, bestowed the
sun, bestowed the waters." [ Rg.V. I.100.18 ] [ Ann. 114 ] Numerous are the references to "the black
skin" `Krishnam Vacham' [ Rg.V. IX.41.1, Sama
Veda I.491, II.242 ] [ Ann. 114 ] which is mentioned with abhorrence. Again " stromy gods who rush on like furious bulls and
scatter the black skin." [ Rg.V. IX.73.5 ] The
singers mention "the black skin, the hated of Indra", being swept
ourtof heaven [ RgV. IX.73.5 ] "Indra protected
in battle the Aryan worshipper, he subdued the lawless for Manu, he conqured
the black skin." [ Rg.V. I.130.8 ] [ Ann.114 ] The sacrificer poured out thanks to his god for
"scattering the slave bands of black descent", and for stamping out
" the vile Dasyan colour." [ Rg.V. II.20.7,
II.12.4 ] [ ANn. 115 ] "Dasam varnam
adharam" [ Rg.V. II.12.4 ] [ Muir part I, p.43,
II, p.284, 323 etc. ] [ Ann. 114 ff ] Rakshas are
- Ravana = Rakshasendra [ Ann. 111 ]
- Rakshas = Ceylon aborigines since Chinese tracvellers and CInghales
chronilces , Rakko or Yakko in the ernalculr [ An. 111 ]
Destruction of Cities -
The Aryan gods are proudly presented by the Vedic "sages" as the
destroyeres of cities. Of these Indra, later considered an incarnation of the
God Vishnu, is the prime culprit. Indra is called Puroha or Purandhara, `sacker
of cities' - [ S & T 366 ] Indra overthrew 100 Puras made of stone (
asmanmayi ) for his worshipper Divodasa [ RgV 4.30.20 ], evidently belonging to
Sambara who is a Dasa ( non-Aryan/demon ) of the mountain [ RgV 6.26.5 ] -- [
Chanda ] [ S & T p.364 ]
No regard was shown to the life of non-Aryans. An Aryan
" Ye mighty ones [ Asvins ]
what do you do there;
why do you stay there among the people wh are held in high esteem through not
ignore them, destroy the life of the Panis "
-- [ RgV I.83.3 ] [ S & T 365 ]
Destruction of Harappa : The Vedic Harappa Hymn
The famous Harappa hymn
of the Rig Veda describes with praise Indra's destruction of Harappa :
" In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of
"At Hariyupiyah he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the rear fled
-- [ Rg.V. XXVIII.5 ]
This Hariyupiyah is likely to be
the Harappa of tte Indus valley.
The date of 1500 BC corresponds to
the end of a sangam period when invasions by barbarians occurred.
The caste system is another
`fossil' of the Aryan conquest, with the lower and exterior castes representing
the aboriginal inhabitants that managed to survivie the Aryan slaughter.
Exactly the same occurred in other parts of the world where one race has
subjugated others, eg. Latin
Iberians conquered Aboriginals ), USA ( Anglo-Saxons ruling over Hispanics and Afro-Americans )
etc. These include the Adivasis ( aboriginal tribals
), the Dalits ( semi-settled aborigianls ) and the Sudras ( the lowest caste ).
However, some of the Sudras were imported under Muslim rule from Southern India.
The caste system consists of
several different "varnas" (
"colors"), three of which are Aryan. The lowest
caste, the Shudra, consists of aboriginals, as well as the exterior untouchable
4.2 Sati and
The Aryans introduced tremendous
restrictions on the life of women, including sati and child mariage. According to Aryan "Hindu" (ie. Vaishnavite)
scriptures, a man must marry a maiden one-third his age.
Cow-worship is another feature
introduced by the Aryans. This probably arose because the Aryans were nomads
and hence required the cow.
5.1 Shiva and
Siva is the god of the Dravidians.
Vishnu is the god of the Aryans
The star-calendar used by the
Aryan-Vaishnavites today was adopted from the Semito-Dravidian Indus Valley civilization, since:
- It is not referred to
in the Rig Veda or Avesta
- It was compiled when
the Indus Valley
was at its peak, before the Aryans came to India.
[ Parpola ]
The Indus people
practiced astronomy because the streets are oriented towards the cardinal
directions, presupposing the use of the sun-stick. A seal from Mohenjo-daro depicts an Indus deity with a star on either side of his haed in the
fashion of the Near East. Inanna-Ishtar, the goddess of love and war, for example,
was associated with the planet Venus [ Parpola ]. This
may have led to the cult of worshipping the planets, the astral religion of India.
5.2 Fire Altars
Fire altars occur late towards the
Indus cities history. They are primitve in nature, constructed
from material from the destroyed Indus cities.
6. Global Aryan Invasions
Aryans invaded several parts of
the world, putting an end to various brilliant civilizations. Babylonia was
destroyed by Kassites, Hittites and Mittani, Egypt was devastated by the Hyksos, and Minoan culture by the
7. Rival Theories
Several other explanations have
been put forth to explain the demise of the Indus
civilisation besides the Aryan invasion. These are:
catastrophes - These include:
- Internal Decline -
These explanations claim that slavery, or some other revolt destroyed the Indus
These have severe problems,
Cometary Impact . The problems with
this theory are:
- No crater/craters have been found with an age
matching 1500 BC, nor of the requisite size. The
size is narrowly constrained, for if the impact was too large, catastrophe
would have been global, while if it were too small, the effect would have
- No iridium anomaly , the
characteristic of all impacts from the mammoth K/T Chiczulub crater [
ALvarez ] to the Sudbury intrusive,
has been found in the Indus valley of the required
- No shocked glasses , or
tektites with the requisite shock deformation features, have been found
anywhere near the Indus valley.
Thus, although a cometary
candidate for the extinction has been found in Comet Enke [ ], this is a
far-fetched theory, to say the least. The destruciton of several civilizations
simultaneously requires a global catastrophe. But some
civilizations, eg. in Central and South AMerica,
and China, survived the 1500 BC discontinuity. Asteroidal impacts
tend to leave larger craters and more iridium, so the arguments against this
variant of impact apply more forcefully.
Flooding . Undisputed
evidence of flooding has been found in the form of silt deposits and barrage
system erected as a defensive measure. Flooding thyus remained a serious
candidate until it was pointed out that several Vedic scholars had realized
that the Aryans had destroyed the irrigation and dam system of the Indus. Thus
flooding is a natural consequence of Aryan invasion and not an independant
1. To suppose that, after two millenia of stability some
internal revolt was the cause behind the downfall is stretching the
2. No evidence has been found for
this, and when indisputable evidence of violence perpetrated with new weapons
exists, it is disregarding evidence.
Although the following may seem
rather harsh, yet it is necessary to expose the real designs of some of the
opponents of one of the most well-established theories of all time.
The opponents of the concept of
Aryan invasion fall into 3 categories:
- Aryan Hindu Fanatics
These mostly have ulterior
motives. The former oppose any vilification of their "gods" who are
implicated in the worst massacres and atrocities recorded in history. They wish
to see the Vedas, in acutality the songs of promitive cow-herds, as the
repository of all science. The latter do not want to accept that their
ancestors perpetrated such crimes. One religious fanatic who opposed the notion
of Aryan invasion during its infancy was Narendra Nath Datta, later known as
Vivekananda. All he could do was to vilify honest schloars:
" And what your European pandits say about the Aryan's sweeping
fron some foreign land, snatching away the alnds of the aboriginals and
settling India by exterminating them, is all pure nonsense, foolish talk.
Strange, that our Indian scholars too say amen to them, and all these monstrous
lies are taught to our boys. This is very bad indeed.
In what Veda, in what Sukta, so you find that the Aryans came to India from a foreign country? Where do you get the idea that
they slaughtered the wild aborigines? What do you gain by talking such nonsense?"
-- [ ` Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda ', 1963,
p.534-535 ] [ Panda 70 ]
Another fundamentalist who opposed the notion of Aryan
invasions is Srviastava, who apparently only conducted his research to prove
the innocence of the Aryan gods :
"Indra, therefore stands
-- [ Srivastava 441 ]
Later, lacking any scientific evidence whatsoever, he
degenerates into vilifying Wheeler himself :
" .. we
see him as a brgiadier in the British army during WW II, we feel he could not
interpret the dubious evidence of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in any other manner "
-- [ Srivas 442 ]
" Both Dayananda and Aurobindo refuted in clear terms the
historical doctrines of Aryan invasion and struggle of Aryans with Dravidian,
which was originated by the Westerners and has even been popularised among a
large section of the Indian Historians."
-- [ A.K.Pateria>, `Modern Commentators of the Veda',
p.63 ] [ Panda 70 ]
Who this Dayananda was must be
The Aryans were so barbaric that they did not even have a
word for brick in Sanskrit [ S & T 372 ] [ Woolley
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- `Hymns of the
Rig-veda', R.T.H.Griffith, 1896
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Anthology', W.D.O'Flaherty 1981
- `Vedic Hymns',
2 vols. (1891-97), F.M.Muller and H.Oldenburg tr.
- [ Manu ] = `Manu
Smirti', Manu, Aryavarta 10 000 BC - 1500 BC ?;
several translations exist.
- [ Garud ] = Garuda
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Taitt. Samh. ] = Taittriya Samhita
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`Archaeology of India',
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Rise of Civilization in India
N.Delhi, 1983, B. and R. Allchin
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A.J.Ammerman and L.L.Cavali-Sforza, Princeton
Univ. Press 1984
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`Physical and cultural similarities between Dravidian and African',
K.P.Aravanan, J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1976) 23-27
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`Extraterrestrial cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction',
L.W.Alvarez, W.Alvarez, F.Asaro and H.V.Michel, Science 208 (1980)
- [ Alvarez SA ] = `An
extraterrestrial impact', W.Alvarez and F.Asaro, Scientific American 263
[ Ann. ] = `The Annals of Rural Bengal', W.W.Hunter, Broomhill House 1868, reprinted in `Landmarsk
in Indian Anthropology', vol. 7, Cosmo Publishing, N.Delhi 1987
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R.P.Chanda, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India
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Knopf, Inc. 1926 locates the Indo-Aryan home north of the Black
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V. Childe, ` The Indus Civilization', Antiquity 11
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periplus of the Brahui problem', J.Elfenbein, Studia Iranica 16:2
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Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar' by Koenraad Elst 1993,
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- The Beginnings ' - D. Chattopadhyaya, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd. Calcutta
an excellent rebuff of the opponents of the Aryan invasion idea; quotes
from all the following ref's of Kosambi and Chanda
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Practices in Ancient India',
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Kafiren' Frankfurt-am-Main 1962
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Myth of Aryan Invasion of Harappa
Town ', by
K.M.Srivastava, in `Frontiers of The Indus
Civilization', eds. B.B.Lal and S.K.Gupta, Delhi
opposes the notion of Aryan invasion.
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at Harappa' Delhi
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L.Woolley, `History of mankind: Culture and Scientific Development',
Vol. I, Pt. 2, pp.353-365, The Beginning of Civilization, UNESCO 1963
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R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro
Floods', Antiquity 39 (1965) 196-203
- [ Raikes 67 ] =
R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro
Floods - Riposte', Antiquity 41 (1967) 309-310
- [ Raja+Frawley ] = `Vedic
Aryans and the Origins of Civilization', by N.S. Rajaram and David
Frawley, World Heritage Press 1995
against the Aryan invasion `theory'.
- [ Raja ] = `Aryan
Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth',
by N.S. Rajaram, Voice of India Publication,
an opponent of the Aryan invasion idea.
- [ Renfrew ] = `The
Origins of Indo-European Languages', C. Renfrew, Scientific American 261:4
(Oct.1989) 106-114 hypothesizes that the spread of Indo-European languages
- [Risley] = `The
People of India'
by Sir H.H.Risley 1915
2nd ed., edtd. by Sir W. Crooke 1969
- [ Senghor ] =
`Negritude and Dravidian Culture', L.S.Senghor, J. of Tamil Studies 10
- [ Tala ] = `The
Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism', by Shrikant G.
Talageri, Voice of India, 1993
opposes the notion of Aryan invasions, as do [ Raja ], [ Raja+Frawley ],
and [ Elst ].
- [ Tuttle ] =
`Dravidian and Nubian', E.H.Tuttle, J. of the Amer. Oreintal Society 52
- [ Upadhyaya ] =
`Dravidian and Negro-African', U.P.Upadhyaya, Intnl. J. of Dravidian
Linguisitsics 5:1 (1976) 32-64
- [ Weiss ] = `The
Genesis and COllapse of Third Millenium North Mesopotamian Civilization',
H. Weiss, M.-A.Courty, W. Wetterstrom, F. Guichard, L. Senior, R. Meadow
and A. Curnow, Science 261 ( 1993 ) 995 - 1004; suggest that
a volcanic eruption caused the fall of Akkad
- [ Winters ] = `The
Indus Valley Writing is Proto-Dravidian', Clyde A. Winters, J. of Tamil
Studies 25 (1985) 50-64
- [ Winters ] = `The
Harappan Script', Clyde A. Winters, J. of Tamil
Studies 30 (1987) 89-111
- [ Winters ] = `The
Inspiration of the Harappan Talismanic Seals', Clyde
A. Winters, Tamil Civilization 2 (1984) 1-8
- [ Winters ] = `Review
article on Dr. Asko Parpola's "The Coming of the Aryans to Irna and India
and the CUltural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas", Clyde A. Winters,
Intnl J. Of Dravidian Lingiuistics XVIII (1989) 98 - 127; a
rebuff to Parpola's theory that the Dasas were Aryans.
- [ Winters ] = `The
Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Language and Culture', Clyde
A. Winters, 1st Intnl Symosm. on Asian Studies 5 1105-1120
- [Winters:Agri] -
`African Influences on Indian Agriculture',
J of African Civlization, 3:1 (April 1981) p.100-110
- [Winters:Sympos] -
`The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Languages and Culture', 1st
Intl Symposium on Asian Studies 5 p.1105-20
- [ War ] = P.
Chakravarti, `The Art of War in Ancient India',
- [ Waddell ] =
L.A.Waddell, `The Makers of Civilization', Angriff Press, Hollywood,
- [ Weisman ] = Charles
A. Weisman, `The Origins of Race and Civilization', SFA 1990
- [ Wheeler 47 ] = `Ancient
No.3 (1947) 82, SIr R.E.M.Wheeler
- [ Wheeler 66 ] = `Civilization
of the Indus and Beyond', London
- [ Wheeler 79 ] = `The
Indus Civilization', 3rd ed., Cambridge
- [ Wheeler 59 ] = `Early
- [ Wheeler 50 ] = `5000
years of Pakistan:
An Archaeological Outline', Londoon 1950
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